Learning Difficulties


Learning to spell involves the following types of spelling knowledge and abilities:
Visual imagery (Visual skills)-Being able to remember a word from its visual pattern or from groups of letters within it.
Phonological Knowledge (Auditory skills)- Being able to identify the separate sounds that occur within a word and then being able to represent these sounds with letters.
Morphemic Knowledge (Thinking skills)-The understanding of the meaning or function of words, or parts of words. The way words can be added to with prefixes and suffixes.
Etymological Knowledge (Thinking skills)- Involves an understanding of the origins and history of words .

Fulk and Stormont-Spurgin (1995) indicate the weaknesses evident in the spelling of students with learning difficulties or learning disabilities may be related to underlying problems with visual processing (reversals of letters and words, incorrect letter order, letters added or omitted), phonological awareness (auditory processing deficiencies-sounds not know, sounds omitted, sounds added, confusion of similar sounds)(Foreman, 2005), language, memory and inefficient learning strategies. However inadequate or insufficient instruction may also cause poor spelling.

You learn spelling using your eyes, ears, mouth and hand.
Spelling by sound by sound-listening
1. Start by saying the word. dog
2. Listen to the sounds you can hear.
3. Say the word again stretching out the sounds. d-o-g
4. Snap the word back together.
5. Write a letter for each sound you hear. dog
6. Check. Were you right
*remember a sound may have more than one letter and don't forget silent letters.

Spelling Syllable-by-Syllable
1. Say the word and then clap the beats in the word.
2. Draw a box for each syllable and write each syllable in a box. vol ca no
3. Say the word as you run your finger under the boxes.
4. Close your eyes and picture the letter sequence in each box.
5. Now right the word from memory.

Spelling from Memory.
1. Write the words in large letters.
2. Look at the word and say it 2 or 3 times.
3. Close your eyes and picture the word.
4.Write in the air with your finger.
5. Write the word on paper from memory.

http://www.spellingcity.com/ Teachers can make up lists for kids to learn

http://www.kidsspell.com/ Spelling Games/lists

http://www.education.tas.gov.au/curriculum/standards/english/english/teachers/spelling Spelling strategies (phonetic, morphemic, mnemonics)

http://learningplace.com.au/deliver/content.asp?pid=15432 Heaps of downloads and links

http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/interactive/literacy.html Spelling Games/lists for kids

http://www.primarygames.com/see-n-spell/blends/start.htm Spelling activities on line

http://www.kidsandlearning.com/mnemonics.html Mnemonics is spelling.

http://www.mes-english.com/phonics/blends.php Resources e.g. Flashcards

http://www.starfall.com/ Activities for the interactive whiteboard

http://www.amblesideprimary.com/ambleweb/lookcover/lookcover.html On line look, cover, write and check

http://www.manythings.org/e/spelling.html Spelling Activities/games on line

http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/media/downloads/schoolsweb/studentsupport/programs/disabilitypgrms/pshandbook.pdf Link for Programming and Strategies Handbook

http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/primary/english/assets/pdf/spelling/fol_spell.pdf Link for Focus on literacy: Spelling

http://www.schools.nsw.edu.au/media/downloads/schoolsweb/studentsupport/programs/lrngdificulties/writespell.pdf Link for Writing and Spelling Strategies

http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_education/publications_resources/schooling_issues_digest/schooling_issues_digest_learning_difficulties.htm#Literacy Det Website - Background Knowledge Students with Learning Disabilities

Waddington Diagnostic test information-

I have made this document up to help my daughter who has spelling difficulties. It basically describes the strategies and rules relating to spelling.
A list of 17 different spelling activities
A copy of assignment with resources